Living down in Tenerife in the Spanish Canary islands it isn’t often one gets to hear of local inventors that have rubbed shoulders with Nicola TESLA. So when a friend of mine mentioned a letter Tesla wrote to a friend which mentioned the Canary Islands my ears pricked up. Figueras Was unknown to me and to everyone i spoke to. But the press cutting that Tesla sent to his friend was making truly remarkable claims that Figuera had invented a machine capable of extracting electricity from the atmosphere. This was one of Teslas predictions. That was over 2 years ago and it seemed I was the only one with an interest , that is until this week I found this story , written by someone with the same curiosity as myself who, had encountered this story and had followed it up. Originally written in Spanish but translated by me , it shows Sr. Figueras was completely unknown to the locals. I found lots of news paper cuttings , one of which Tesla cut out at the time and sent to his friend. Beyond the initial press clamor of 1902, I could only find reference to his partner, a Sr. Blasberge having been made director of the local gas works in the 1920’s. This sparked the conspiracy theorist in me and I searched high and low to find out why Blasberg was the director of the gas works while Clemente Figueras was forgotten. I only uncovered part of the story but I am very grateful to this Spanish author who filled in the blanks to a forgotten part of Tesla and Canary island history.
Enigma of Clement Figuera and his infinite energy machine
WARNING I: this article corresponds to a reduced version of which I published in the history of Iberia Vieja Magazine January 2011 edition.
WARNING II: There are always strong critisism with issues like this, so I will make it clear from the start: according to current knowledge of physics, it is not possible to build perpetual motion machines or similar relatives. This article aims to discover a unique biography of a forgotten man , nothing more.
I want to give my thanks Esther Celma, Carlos canals and Juan Carlos Tejero, and the adventures lived around the figure of Clement Figuera and his inventions.
I have spent more than seven years behind this story. At first I thought someone would have already published some review or even Biography about this character, but I noted with surprise that he slept hidden among the mists of history for more than a hundred years. Nobody has bothered to rescue him. So, I decided to finally get to know the unique Clemente Figuera and, also, make an appeal with this story for more information, because there is still much to find out:, If a reader has more information in his possession, or is even a descendent of Clement Figuera, I would greatly appreciate if you could get in touch with me so I can bring this biographical tale of this curious character to a close. Having said that, I will tell you the reason why I have been captivated by this story for so many years.
This story began in early 2003, while I was closing the documentary base to my first book, heretics of science. This took shape out of hundreds of collected of clippings on scientific theories, and technologies that were either considered very daring at the time, although ended up finally being accepted or, on the other hand, were still taken as crazy nonsense. The main characters were real heretics of science, always on the cutting edge between the provable and what is just hot air. Between all of these chips I had a collection of charlatans and con artists who throughout history have been shouting from the rooftops about giving life to perpetual motion machines. None of them made me pay the slightest bit of attention, because they fall squarely into the pseudo-scientific and there was no case to be had , they weren’t on the border, they were not even close to the science, they were just simple tricksters. Of course, a perpetual motion machine is impossible, that much is clear , the laws of physics cannot be played with, they are inflexible.
The first Clue from the hands of Nikola Tesla
But in all things there must be an exception. He did not appear in any search of any machine that would break any of the laws of thermodynamics, but yes, here arose a very special case that has intrigued me for years. At present I have compiled everything I could about him, and even though I have not rescued much, I think that it is enough to keep the intrigue alive. It all started when I found a curious story in an old issue of the New York times from June 9, 1902..The New York Times and the New York Herald both published a brief note about an encounter a journalist had with a Spanish engineer named Clement Figueras. Note here that the real name of the protagonist of this article is Figuera, but in many of the newspapers and magazines of the time that I have been able to collect they insist on naming him as Figueras with an “s”.
The news about this meeting was published, and repeated, by various newspapers in Spain, England and the United States. What caught my attention was that it stated, emphatically, that the engineer had built an electric machine that did not need fuel to run. Any other details that appeared in the newspapers, all repeated the same phrases. I was now stung with curiosity, first because he had never heard anything about the figure Figuera and, above all, his novel machine which hardly anyone talked about. I decided to dive a little deeper for data , little imagining that the search would last for years. I returned to find Clement Figuera in an unexpected place, Right in Nikola Tesla’s private correspondence. He was mentioned in a letter between Tesla and Robert u. Johnson which is available in the Tesla Collection of the Columbia University Library. Tesla stated in one of the letters how, after reading one of the articles published in the press on the Spanish engineer and his alleged machine were able to extract electrical energy from nothing, That he had already reached the same conclusions . I have no idea to what conclusions referred to Tesla, because the press did not publish any information or details regarding Figuera machine. Could they have been in personal contact? I doubted it, but Teslas resounding statement remains curious . With a lot of press cuttings from 1902 and the Letter from Nikola Tesla, I decided to start hunting for Clement Figuera.
The best way to start was to collect all the press clippings from the era in which the name of Clement Figuera was quoted. They weren’t many, between 1902 and 1906 only I could find a twenty, and in addition, They all seemed to be copies of each other. Here, is an example, as published in the Chicago Daily Tribune on June 9, 1902, which is a perfect example of what has been published in many other newspapers from various countries around the same date:
London, cable to the Chicago Tribune, June 9,
Mr Clemente Figueras, Las Palmas, Canary Islands, has been recognized for having created a mechanism capable of generating electricity without the use of any mechanical or chemical, action only through the use of simple techniques that allow to extract electricity of the atmosphere. The news of the invention comes thanks to the correspondent the Daily Mail sent to Las Palmas, who claims that Mr Figueras has already built a fully functional machine. The discoverer, Clement Figueras, is a forestry and mountain engineer in the Canary Islands and has been Professor of physics at the College of St. Augustine in Las Palmas, where has achieved wide recognition as a scientist for many years.
Well, Here we have some of the pieces of the puzzle. It appears a Canarian engineer had a machine that could extract energy from the atmosphere, although that was a completely erroneous understanding by the journalist. Also other details such as the status of “Professor of Physics” of the inventor and as also stated more later on in the article, the intention of patenting this technology in Madrid and Berlin. So the next logical step was to go to the Patent Office to check what he was talking about and if there really was such a patent. But before I do , it is worth briefly mentioning what the Spanish press published on this case on those dates. For example, in the edition of May 1902 of the magazine, Arts and Sciences read as follows:
English newspapers makes extensive references to a very important discovery carried out by D. Clement Figueras, a Mountain engineer of the Canary Islands and Professor of physics at the College of San Agustín de Las Palmas. Mr Figueras has been working in silence in order to find a procedure to use it directly, i.e. without dynamos or chemical agents, huge amounts of electricity exist in the atmosphere and are renewed without ceasing, constituting a deposit of inexhaustible energy. Our compatriot has achieved his purpose, having managed to invent a generator which can collect and store atmospheric electricity so that it can be used later for the traction of trams, trains, etc, or to power machinery in factories or to illuminate the houses and streets. Even if we do not know the details of the procedure until Mr Figueras has fully perfected it , ensures that his invention will produce a tremendous economic and industrial revolution. The apparatus devised by Mr Figueras has been built in separate pieces, and according to the drawings he made, by different companies in Paris, Berlin and Las Palmas. Receiving the parts, the engineer has mounted and assembled in its box. The company in Berlin who built some of the pieces, were so curious about what they would be used for that they sent an engineer to the Canary Islands, on the pretext of helping construct the device while the real purpose was to find out about the entire apparatus, but it their objective was not achieved. Apparently, the apparatus of Mr Figueras essentially consists of three parts: a collector, a transformer and an accumulator; So in summary, what it does is collect atmospheric electricity, transforming its dynamics to store it in a secondary battery for later use in the manner and amount that suits. We understand that the inventor will soon come to Madrid and then goes to Berlin and London, and then you will know the procedure in all its details.
Clement Figuera, an engineer of prestige
I have no idea where the press pulled the idea about “atmospheric electricity”, because in figuera’s patents, or at least in those that I have been able to review, he does not mention anything of the sort. What I was clear about after reading all the cuttings was that this character deserved to be investigated, albeit briefly. What I found then was completely unexpected. By experience, after having collected dozens of stories in a similar vain to supposed inventors of miraculous machines of all kinds, but I always reached the same conclusion, namely that were solitary adventurers, most without adequate training or prestige, who believed that they invented something great or, perhaps were simple swindlers. But with Clement Figuera I found a perfectly respected engineer, he was a valued character at the time and had nothing to do with “crazy” dreamers or nonsensical inventions . It was the life of Figuera which shook me up, because it had nothing to do with that of a fly by night adventurer.
Following the trail among official papers and publications in the press I have been able to rebuild a small biography of Clement Figuera, which shows a person of faultless trajectory. The first reference that I located on Clement Figuera Ustariz, the full name of our protagonist, was released in November 1865 as a mention of praise towards the future engineer, who at that time was in his studies. He appears in the reports to work as a mountain and forestry engineer. The official Spanish guide places him in Salamanca in 1872 but I was unable to find any other references around that time.
In 1875 Figuera appears again. This time after a transfer.Mentioned that he worked as a Mountain and forestry engineer in Malaga and requested a transfer to Granada. He gradually rose in his profession, in 1880 he was appointed Chief Engineer second class and for several years held that position in the province of Badajoz, becoming Chief Engineer in the Canary Islands in 1899. In 1903 he was promoted to Inspector General second class, and in 1904, he was transferred to Barcelona with the post of Inspector. Again in 1906 he rose to the rank of Inspector first class, staying in Barcelona until his death, which happens at the end of 1908. It’s funny to read the praise made by fellow engineers in the press at the time of his death, being considered an irreproachable and highly respected member of his profession. In various official documents we can also read how, throughout his extensive career, Clemente Figuera received commissions by various Governments to carry out studies of great importance in developing economic activities in the Canary Islands and Catalonia. With all this information in hand, I was thoughtful: what need had a respected inventor and engineer have of running the risk of being labeled a dreamer? The most striking part of all was that his facet of inventor was, apparently, something that had been in the most absolute secrecy, revealing only that part of his life when he decided to apply for patents and, even then, he decided to go as unnoticed as possible.
Adventures in the Patent Office
I had some time to figure out how the Figuera machine worked. The search results were again amazing, because they did not resemble anything that could have been previously imagined. The first logical step was to find out whether there were really patents that could be attributed to Clement Figuera. A quick search brought up results straight away. Here are all his patents according to the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office. I have divided them into two groups with a very personal notation, depending on the place of residence at the time the patents were applied for. This also applies to that of Pedro Blasberge, who appears as co-author on some of the patents. I found it difficult to find out more about Blasberge except i was able to locate him as a director of a gas plant in Las Palmas in the 1920′s:
Canary Island patents
Patent number: 30375. Title: A procedure for obtaining electrical currents entirely equal to those that give the current dynamos. Application date: 20-09-1902. Applicant: Figuera Urtáiz, Clement / Blasberge, Peter.
Patent number: 30376. Title: Machine without driving force produced by electrical currents applicable to all time zones. Application date: 20-09-1902. Applicant: Figuera Urtáiz, Clement / Blasberge, Peter.
Patent number: 30377. Title: A new procedure to obtain electrical currents without having to use driving force, no batteries or accumulators or other similar means. Application date: 20-09-1902. Applicant: Figuera Urtáiz, Clement / Blasberge, Peter.
Patent number: 30378. Title: An electric generator. Application date: 20-09-1902. S
Applicant: Figuera Urtáiz, Clement / Blasberge, Peter.
Patent number: 44267. Title: A new electricity generator called ‘Figuera’.
Date of application: 10 31, 1908. Grant date: 16-11-1908. Applicant: Figuera Urtáiz, Clement.
After reviewing the list carefully it took not more than a few minutes in the Patent Office to request copy of all of them. Unfortunately, I was informed that all of them were damaged, apparently by the humidity of a former flood that affected files. They could hardly give me a copy, with some damage from the patents 30375 44267, i.e., the first and the last of the series. In them you can read how the approach of Figuera is very original and has nothing to do with extracting energy from the atmosphere. Moreover, after commenting about the case with several engineers, we agree that, these could not possibly work, but there is an intriguing aspect because, at the time in which these patents were published, A demonstration of a model was called for in front of the patent examiner before the patent application would be accepted and complete. Knowing the prestige of Figuera, A question spins around my head. Could Figuera have really found an interesting technology? There are limitations when we come checking the rest of the patents , there exists some doubt as to what was exactly invented due to the damaged documents and the missing information they contained. In two of the revised patents you can see how, in a clever way, and mechanical methods, the engineer intended to generate electrical energy inside of a coil by varying the flow of two opposite and opposing magnetic fields, while everything is reproduced in the machine the same behavior and characteristic of a conventional generator, but with no moving parts. I have no doubt that the coil will generate eddy currents, as he thought, but to pretend that more energy is generated in the coil, or set of coils, and that that was enough to generate current in the inductors fields, even though they vary in time very quickly, is something illusory. Despite this, it is a curious experiment, and someone should be encouraged to try will see that it is something really easy to put into practice, always you can learn something of a montage as well. Today is easier in times of Figuera, as they can be electronic, not mechanical components. I then attached the transcription of the two patents that I could get.
(My impression is that using a resistive load which was similar to a spinning reostat he was able to vary the current and therefore induce current into a secondary. A sort of early transformer inverter or vibroplex if you will.)
ANNEX – TRANSCRIPTION OF TWO PATENTS OF CLEMENT FIGUERA
Ministry of agriculture, industry, trade and public works. General agriculture, industry and trade. Patent invention number: 30.375. Submitted at the request of Don Clemente Figuera and Don Pedro Blasberge. -presented in the registration of this Ministry on September 20, 1902, at 11.” Received in the registry September 25, 1902. New procedure for the production of electrical currents in general applicable to industial uses.
All the systems adopted, to the present, to produce electrical currents, are based on the well-known principle of magnetizing and demagnetizing an iron core quickly as it approaches and moves away from a magnetic field, currents are induced in a copper wire which is coiled around said core. This is the fundamental principle of the Clarke machine , the society “The Alliance”, and current dynamos, who, like all of these machines are transformers of mechanical force into electricity.In all of these there are magnetization and demagnetization’s of the solenoid cores using magnets or electromagnets, called drivers.
Do which they register, they have devised a new method or procedure to produce change in the State of magnetization in the iron cores, and this procedure consists in making the all of the current drivers electromagnets which act intermittently , or with alternating signs, on the iron solenoids thus nothing moves.
Do all the blend is reduced to change in the status of magnetization of the nucleos, so induced electrical currents occur. This result so far has been achieved by moving nucleo or nucleos to move closer together or further away from magnetic centers quickly fields are created by electromagnetic drivers that vary an electrical current by intermittent or alternating, to vary the magnetic state of the driving electomagnets , and varying also, under the influence, the magnetic State of the core on which the induced circuit, lies coiled , electrical currents are born which can be industrially exploited.
Like the soft iron core of a dynamo becomes a true magnet from the moment current is circulated, we think that the core must be formed or made up a group of true electromagnets made in proper conditions so that they develop the best possible attractive force nd without taking into accountfor nothing, the conditions to which the induced circuit, which is completely independent of the nu should conform? cleo.
Do do the procedure is therefore reduced to establish an independent induced circuit within the sphere of Actium? n or atmo? sfera magne? tica formed between polar faces, if not name, of two electromagnets, or series of electromagnets, powered by intermittent or alternate flows.
Do in the current dynamos, the reels of the induced circuit, cut the lines of force ranging from the faces of the drivers electromagnets to nucleo; in our procedure, these same liines of force, are born and die, they pass through the reels of the inductor.
Ministry of agriculture
Ministerio de Fomento
The novelty of our procedure, consists of:
1.No driving force is needed for anything used as driving force than the machines to build cylindre? Using these principles, you will not have to transform work into electricity.
2, until the present, industrially, nothing has attempted to alter, from scratch the magnetic fields or magnets or solenoid drivers of a machine underway
note: for which sought the patent: procedure for obtaining electrical currents, establishing an induced circuit inmo? vile and independently, within the sphere of Action of magnetic the atmosphere formed between the two poles of two electromagnets, or series of fixed driving electromagnets powered by intermittent or alternate flows.
Madrid, September 2, 1902. Signed: Clement Figueras.
Ministerio de Fomento Direccio? n General of agriculture, industry and Commerce patents of Invention. Caducada. Dossier number 44267 Instruction at the request of D. Clement Figuera representative Mr. Buforn. Presented in the register of the Ministry in 31 of â€ “from 1908, at 11? 55 received in the negotiated in 2 â€” of 1908.
GENERATOR ELECTRICAL “FIGUERA”
if within a spinning magnetic field we place a closed circuit at right angles to the lines of force current will be induced for as long as there is movement , and whose sign will depend on the direction that the induction circuit moves in
This is true of all of all magnetic machines and electric dynamos from the primitive, invented by Pixii, France and modified and improved later by Clarke until the current dynamos of today.
The principle that is based this theory, brings about the unavoidable need for the movement of the induced circuit or inductor, and there? does that take these ma? Mecca as transformative work machines? nico into electricity.
BEGINNING OF THE INVENCION
To follow closely what happens in a Dynamo in motion, is that the fields of the inductor approch and depart the magnetic centers of electromagnets those fields, in turn, go through sections of the magnetic field of different power, because, while this has its maximum attraction in the center of each electromagnet , this action will weaken as the inductor is separated from the center of the electromagnet, to increase again, when the inductor is approaching the center of another electromagnet it is opposite to the first.
Because we all know of the effects that are manifested when a closed circuit approaches and moves away from a magnetic Center,The same happens while still and immobile in this circuit, the magnetic field is increasing and reducing in intensity; since any variation , occurring in the flow traversing a circuit is producing electrical induced electrical current .thinking in the possibility of building a machine that would work, not PRC? n the beginning of movement, as do the current dynamos, but using the principle of increase and decreasing power of the magnetic field and the electrical current that it produces.
The fraught? n from the current total of the current dynamos is the sum of partial induced currents born in each one of the turns of the inductor. So it matters little to these induced currents if they were obtained by the turning of the inductor, or by the variation of the magnetic stream that runs through them; but in the first case, mechanical work is required to transformed from mechanical work into the total flow of the Dynamo, and in the second case, the force necessary to achieve the variation of flow is so insignificant that it can be derived without any inconvenience, which is provided by the machine.
Do do there until the present no ma? quina founded on this principle has not been applied even to the production of large electrical currents, and which among other advantages, has removed all need for movement and therefore the force needed to produce it.
Do do as what privilege is the aplicacio? n to the produccio? n large current ele? industrial ctricas, on the principle that says that “are there produccio? n of current ele? ctrica induced provided that you change in one way any flow of force through the induced circuit,” seems that it is enough with the foregoing; do do do do however as this aplicacio? n need to materialize in a ma? quina, there is need to describe it in order to see how pra? practice do the aplicacio? n of said principle.
Do do do this principle is not new since it is not ma? s as a consequence of the laws of induccion n sitting by Faraday in the an? or 1831: what if? do do is new and you want to give priority is the aplicacio? n this principle to a ma? quina causing large currents ele? industrial ctricas to the present not obtainable but transforming into electricity Mecca work? nico.
Does are we therefore to make the descripcio? n a ma? quina founded in the before this principle that favors; do do but must be present, and what is sought is the patent for the aplicacio? n the beginning, all ma? quina to build founded therein principle, will be? do within e? patent sta, whatever the form and way that has been used to make the aplicacio? n.
DESCRIPCION OF GENERATOR OF EXCITACION VARIABLE “FIGUERA”
The machine comprising a fixed inductor circuit, consisting of several electromagnets with nu? sweet iron coress exercising induccio? n in the induced circuit, also? fixed n e Realty? vil, composed of several reels or spires, conveniently placed. As niether of the two circuits spin, there is no need to make them round, nor leave any space between one and the other.
Whatt is constantly changing is the intensity of the excitation stream which drives the electromagnets and this is accomplished by varying the resistance to current flow, which is taken from one foreign origin into one or more electromagnets, and, as resistance is greater or minor, the magnetization of the electromagnets is lessening or increasing and varying Therefore, the intensity of the magnetic field , or the workflow that crosses the induced circuit.
To fix ideas is convenient to avail themselves of the plan of the machines to understand the operation of the machine and to understand that it does not need to be cylindrical as in previous designs.
Do we suppose that it is represented electromagnets for the straight? N and S. offered The induced circuit represented by the li is between its poles? Ne
Do we suppose that it is represented electromagnets for the straight? N and S. offered The induced circuit represented by the li is between its poles? nea “and” (do pequen? to). let “R” a resistance that is drawn in an elementary manner to facilitate the comprehension of the entire system, and “+” and “-” the excitation stream which is taken from an external generator and foreigners? or the Ma? quina. The different pieces of the resistance will stop, as seen with the drawing to the delgas embedded in a cylinder of insulating material that does not move; do but around e? l and always in contact with ma? s of a FOSA revolves a brush “Or” that carries the flow of foreign origin. One of the ends of the resistance is linked with electromagnets N and the other with electromagnets S half of the ends of the resistance parties go to the half of the delgas of the cylinder and the other half of these delgas this? directly linked to the first.
The functioning of the machine is as follows: it has been said that the brush “or” tour around the cylinder “G” and always in contact with two of their delgas. When this? contact the FOSA “1″ the flow that comes from the generator and passes through the brush and FOSA “1″, will magnetize to the maximum electromagnets N but not the S because prevents it any resistance; so first this electromagnets full of current and the second are empty. When the wiper arm is in contact the FOSA “2″ the current won’t entire electromagnets N because it has to pass through part of the resistance; In contrast to the electrodes S is already something current because this has to overcome less resistance than in the previous case. Do this same reasoning is applicable to the case in which the brush “Or” close the circuit in each of the different delgas until that which finished this in a semicircle are beginning to operate in the other half that this? n directly linked to each other. In short the resistance makes the Office of a dealer of current; as not going to excite some electromagnets excites others and so? successively; applies current to electrodes N and S simultaneously paralleled and in opposite sense because while the first go full? current ndose are emptying the seconds and repeating this effect followed and an orderly remains an illnesses? constant magnetic fields within which is placed the induced circuit without any more complications than the turning of a brush or group of brushes that move circularly around the cylinder “G” powered by the action of a small electrical motor.
As seen in the drawing the current has once made his profession in the different electromagnets returns to the generator where taken; do do naturally in every revolution? n of the brush will be? a change of sign in the induced current; but a switch the hara? continuous if so? you want to. this stream is derived from a small part and she is excite the machine converting ndola in auto excitation and operated the small motor that spins the brush and the switch; do do is removed the external current supply to or bait and the machine continued working without any help indefinately.
The invention is really new; very bold and above all has huge inductrial consequences did not want ask for privilege of invention to avoid running a machine based on these principles, giving this writing the sancio? n pra? practice without which seri? an inu? tiles few considerations were made.
ADVANTAGES OF THE ELECTRICAL GENERATOR “FIGUERA”
Do does first give completely of bucket, flows ele? continuous or alternate ctricas of any fraught? n and applicable quantity a:
1. Production of driving force. 2 Production of light. 3 Production of heat. 4. All the previous uses.
2. No need whatsoever of driving force of any kind nor reactions or chemical nor fuel.
3.does not need lubrication only in small amounts.
4.Operation is so simple that it can be done by all.
5. does not produce smoke, noise, nor vibration in its operation.
6 indefinite operational life.
7 apply to all uses home management and industrial.
8 of easy construction.
9 cheap to produce
The patent was taken out for 20 years. you requested must lie on a “new generator of electricity, so-called FIGUERA variable exiciter, designed to produce electrical currents for industrial applications without using driving force, nor chemical reactions. the machine is essentially characterized by two series of electromagnets that form the inductor circuit, between whose poles run a conveniently prepared inductor, Both curcuits remain fixed, both circuits, induced and inductor and are able to produce a current induced by the constant variation a result of being in a constantly varying intensity of magnetic field .
(,_ael_principio_de_un_manantial_electrico_exterior_cualquiera) to pass through a rotating brush that in its movement of rotation is placed in contact with a a ring distributor this is turned and in communication with a resistor whose value varies from a maximum to a minimum and vice versa, segu? n the contact or the cylinder that FOSA of? do I turn to the current to the electromagnets for which purpose this resistance lies in communication with electromagnets N by one of its ends, and the S at the other end, in such a way that the current induce wrath? will magnetize successively with more or less force to the first as, contrary, anger? decreasing or increasing the magnetization in seconds, determining these variations in intensity of the magnetic field, the production of the current in the inductor, current that we can use for any work for the most part, and of which only one small part is derived for the actuation of a small electrical motor that spins the brush and another part goes to the continuous excitation of electromagnets , with which the machine becomes auto exciting, One can then remove the external power that was used at the beginning to power the excitation, once the machinery is in motion, no new force is required and the machine can produce energy indefinitely
All in accordance with the described and detailed in this report and is represented in the drawings that are attached.
Barcelona, October 30, 1908. Signed: Constantine Buforn.